Network | Wireless Communication Mediums | 13

WIFI

Full form :-Wireless Local Area Network (WIFI)(Wireless Fidelity)

Definition:-

A wireless LAN is a wireless computer network that links two or more devices using wireless communication to form a local area network within a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, campus, or office building.

Frequency:

2.4 GHz, 3.6 GHz, 4.9 GHz, 5 GHz, and 5.9 GHz

Range:

150 to 300 feet

Applications:

Sharing of files, Accessing the Internet, Stream Audio to Wireless Speakers, Device Sharing

Hardwires:

Security:

WEP,WPA,WPA2,

RFID

Full form :-radio-frequency identification

Definition:-

RFID is a method of data collection that involves automatically identifying objects through low-power radio waves. Data is sent and received with a system consisting of RFID tags, an antenna, an RFID reader, and a transceiver.

Frequency:

ultra high frequency range(300 to 1000 MHz),RFID applications(433 MHz and 860–960 MHz)

Types:

433 MHz frequency -active tags,

860–960 MHz -passive tags and semi-passive tags.

Range:

100 m

Applications:

Wireless Memory Tag

Hardwires:

Security:

no authentication

Bluetooth

Full form :-

Definition:-

a standard for the short-range wireless interconnection of mobile phones, computers, and other electronic devices.

Frequency:

2.4GHz

Range:

30 feet (10 meters)

Applications:

File Transfer, Voice Call

Hardwires:

Security:

LE Security Mode 1,LE Security Mode 2

IR

Full form :-

infrared radiation

Definition:-

Infrared radiation is a part of the electromagnetic spectrum. This is a spectrum of waves that also includes light. Infrared is also called thermal radiation and is one way in which heat is transferred. Infrared is emitted (given off), absorbed (taken in) and reflected by all objects.

Frequency:

300 GHz — 430 THz

Range:

700nm — 1mm

Applications:

TV Remote

Hardwires:

Security:

can be intercepted

ZIGBEE

Full form :-

Definition:-

Zigbee is a low-cost, low-power, wireless mesh network standard targeted at battery-powered devices in wireless control and monitoring applications. Zigbee builds on the physical layer and media access control for low-rate wireless personal area networks (WPANs).

Frequency:

2.4GHz

Range:

10 to 100 meters

Applications:

communication between sensors

Hardwires:

Security:

128 bit symmetric encryption keys

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Television and Radio Broadcasting

Full form :-

Definition:-

Television broadcasting: form of broadcasting in which a television signal is transmitted by radio waves from a terrestrial (Earth based) transmitter of a television station to TV receivers having an antenna.

Frequency:

540–1600 kHz

Range:

50–60 km

Applications:

TV Broadcasting, FM Station

Hardwires:

Security:

Digital encryption technology “scrambles” content provided from programmers to prevent unauthorized viewers from watching pay television services.

Satellite Communication

Full form :-

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Definition:-

Satellite communication, in telecommunications, the use of artificial satellites to provide communication links between various points on Planet.

Frequency:

1–50 gigahertz

Range:

350kilometer

Applications:

television, telephone, radio, internet, GPS

Hardwires:

Security:

asymmetrically keyed encryption

Radar

Full form :-Radio Detection And Ranging

Definition:-

a system for detecting the presence, direction, distance, and speed of aircraft, ships, and other objects, by sending out pulses of radio waves which are reflected off the object back to the source.

Frequency:

400 MHz to 36 GHz

Range:

sky wave 100–3500 km

surface wave 500 km

Applications:

Air Traffic Control

Hardwires:

Security: ?

GPS

Full form :-Global Positioning System

Definition:-

GPS, or the Global Positioning System, is a global navigation satellite system that provides location, velocity and time synchronization

Frequency:

L1 “1575.42 MHz”

L2 “1227.6 MHz”

L5 “1176 MHz”

Range:

20,200 km

Applications:

Navigation

Hardwires:

Security:

A-code encryption

Cordless Phones

Full form :-

Definition:-

A cordless telephone or portable telephone is a telephone in which the handset is portable but able to be used like landline phone communication, only it operates by radio frequency transmission and not a physical insulated wire, or telephone line.

Frequency:

43–50 MHz

Range:

indoor usage -

50 meter

outdoor usage 300 meters

Applications:

voice communication

Hardwires:

Security:

no security easily intercepted

femtocells

Full form :-

Definition:-

The cellular subscriber connects the femtocell base station to his broadband Internet connection (e.g., cable modem or DSL) via Ethernet. … Typical femtocell base stations transmit 20 mW, which is a thousand times weaker than an outdoor base station and about one-fifth the power of a typical Wi-Fi access point.

Frequency:

1.9 GHz — 2.6 GHz

Range:

20 m — 30 m

Applications:

Wi-Fi calling

Hardwires:

Security:

man in middle attack perform

Repeater

Full form :-

Definition:-

In telecommunications, a repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it. Repeaters are used to extend transmissions so that the signal can cover longer distances or be received on the other side of an obstruction.

Frequency:

VHF 6 meter (50–54 MHz),

2 meter (144–148 MHz),

1.25-meter band (1​1⁄4 meters) (220–225 MHz)

UHF 70 centimeter (420–450 MHz) bands

Range:

up to 2,500 feet

Applications:

Signal Boosting

Hardwires:

Security:

same Wi-Fi security

Pager

Full form :-

Definition:-

A pager is a very simple radio that listens to just one station all of the time. The pagers listen to the signal from the transmitter constantly as long as the pager is turned on. Each pager has a specific identification sequence called a Channel Access Protocol (CAP) code. The pager listens for its unique CAP code.

Frequency:

Commercial paging 35–36, 43–44, 152–159, 454–460 MHz bands

Range:

10 to 15 square miles

Applications:

messaging

Hardwires:

Security:

messages can be intercepted

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InfoSec Writer/Instructor/Custom Course Creator Bug Bounty Hunter Penetration Tester

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Akash Ranjan Patel

Akash Ranjan Patel

InfoSec Writer/Instructor/Custom Course Creator Bug Bounty Hunter Penetration Tester

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